HomePage | Optical Illusions | War Stories | QBasic | Dads Navy Days | Bristol | Bristol, USA | Bristol, Canada | Terre Haute | Miscellany | Web Stuff | About Ray | Site Map | Site Search | Messages | Credits | Links | Web Rings

Terre Haute | Prehistory | Indians | Explorers | Postcards (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4), (Page 5), (Page 6) | Union Hospital | Ghosts | 2002 Events (Cars), (Planes), (Hovercraft) | Snow Rollers (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4), (Page 5) | Differences (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4) | Other Stuff | Fowlers | Other Sites

Terre Haute - A history and a guide

This is my history and guide to my adopted home - Terre Haute, Indiana.

Prehistory - the Glaciers

Why is Indiana and much of the surrounding states so flat?

The Earth has undergone many ice ages, the first being around 700,000 years ago. The last was about 20,000 years ago. Much of Indiana was covered by a glacial ice sheet many hundreds of metres thick. This last great glacier is called the Wisconsin Glacier. The glaciers had a scouring effect on the land and this great expanse of ice carried much sediment with it. When the ice retreated northwards, ending about 10,000 BC, the sediment, sometimes hundreds of feet thick, filled in many of the valleys that were once in the region and leaving behind it many areas that became bogs. The crushing weight of the ice only got around two thirds of the way into Indiana before it retreated, this explains the flatness of the north of the state while the south has rolling hills. The huge amount of sediment deposited by the glacier, which in places is hundreds of feet deep, also explains the rich farming land that makes up much of Indiana. 

Extent of the Wisconsin glacier - 18,000 years ago

Extent of the Wisconsin glacier - 18,000 years ago

Around 12,000 BC, mammoths, mastodons, caribou, giant bison, giant beaver, peccary, deer, dog, coyote, birds, turtles, and fish inhabited the mostly spruce covered countryside. Over the centuries the glaciers, and the spruce, retreated northwards.

The high water table is the state's water supply. About 60 - 72 percent of Indiana's population relies on ground water for drinking and household uses. In 1995 it was estimated that 1.52 million people were supplied water from private domestic wells, and 2.1 million people were supplied by public water supply systems from a ground-water source. Approximately 303 million gallons per day of ground water was pumped by public water supply systems registered as significant water withdrawal facilities (100,000 gallons per day capacity) in 1992. Approximately 4,200 public water supply systems and countless industries use ground water as their source of water.

Prehistory - the early people

About 12,000 BC, what are known as the Clovis people first arrived in what was to become the United States of America. There are three main theories about the origins of the Clovis people :-

1) The retreating glaciers allowed humans from Asia in the north west to enter through Alaska.

2) They migrated northward from South America, specifically from Chile or Peru.

3) They were Europeans who sailed the Atlantic, hugging the ice sheets to the north around Greenland.

Whatever their origins, four thousand years later, in the Archaic Period, they inhabited every part of the United States, from coast to coast, from cold southern Canada to Mexico. The remains of their settlements and artifacts, especially their distinctive arrow and spear heads, can be found all over America. These were hunter gatherers and may have been responsible for the extinction of several species of animals.

The Clovis people were the first people of what is known as the Paleo Indians. These cultures, the Clovis, Folsom and Plano flourished around 10,000 BC. For 4,000 years the climate changed, growing gradually warmer and the Indians had adapted to the changing conditions, ushering in the Archaic Period. The people of the Archaic Period weren't very different from the Paleo Indians. The invention of new tools for hunting and fishing, baskets and nets meant there was the opportunity for trade in food, raw materials and finished goods with the emerging, differing cultures of the period. During the Archaic Period, from around 6,000 BC to 1,500 BC, the colonisation of the North American continent, by what were to become the Native American Indians, was complete, and people were able to live in previously uninhabitable places.

1,500 BC to around 1,000 AD came the Woodland Period. As the climate changed so did the lifestyles of the human population of North America. As the larger mammals began to die out in many areas then the people had to hunt smaller game. To supplement their diet more use of made of local vegetation. Dwellers along coastal regions learned how to take advantage of the sea for their food. The introduction of agriculture meant that the people could settle, or at least become semi-nomadic. It was during this time that the use of pottery and the bow and arrow became widespread. The political, social, cultural and geographic boundaries became more obvious and maps, such as the one below, can be drawn of them.

Culteral areas of the Woodland Period

Cultural areas of the Woodland Period (approx 1,000 BC)

The areas are only a rough guide, the Indian cultures would have changed gradually depending on the local climate, vegetation, animals, and with allegiances and contacts with nearby groups of people.

From around 3,000 BC the people who inhabited the Northeast and Southeast regions first started building the great mounds. The mound building went on to at least 1800 AD. There appear to be several forms of mounds, the first seem to be burial mounds but others seem to have had more cultural or religious significance.

The final stage of Native American development is the Mississippian, this lasted from around 1,000 AD to around 1,600 AD, around the time when Europeans found North America and began to work their way westward across the new land.

American Indians

Before I started writing this I thought that there were only a handful or so Indian tribes, the Cherokee, Crow, Apache, Mohawk etc. which are the ones I saw depicted in Westerns. Once I started reading material for this site I realised that there are dozens of them. Although I'm interested in the tribes that lived or passed through Indiana here is a list of American Indian nations and tribes by the areas outlined above.


Abenaki, Algonkin, Beothuk, Cayuga, Chippewa, Delaware, Erie, Fox, Ho-Chuck, Huron, Illinois, Iroquois, Kickapoo, Lumbee, Mahican, Mascouten, Mashantucket, Massachuset, Mattabesic, Mattinnecock, Menominee, Metoac, Miami, Micmac, Mingo, Mohegan, Mowhawk, Montagnais, Montauketts, Nansemond, Narragansett, Nauset, Neutrals, Niantic, Nipissing, Nipmuc, Ojibwe, Oneida, Ottawa, Pamunkey, Pennacook, Penobscot, Pequot, Pocumtuck, Potawatomi, Powhatan, Sauk, Shawnee, Susquehannock, Tionontati, Tuscarora, Tuscarora (Southern), Wampanoag, Wappinger, Wea, Wenro, Wikwe, Winnebago, Wiyot, Wyandot, Wyandote, Wyandotte.


Acolapissa, Asis, Alambama, Alibamu, Apalachee, Atakapa, Bayougoula, Biloxi, Calusa, Catawba, Chakchiuma, Cherokee, Chesapeake Algonquin, Chickasaw, Chitamacha, Choctaw, Cosushatta, Coushatta, Creek, Cusabo, Gaucata, Guale, Hitchiti, Houma, Jeags, Karankawa, Keetoowah, Lumbee, Miccosukee, Mobile, Napochi, Nappissa, Natchez, Ofo, Oklahoma, Powhatan, Quapaw, Seminole, Southeastern Siouan, Tekesta, Tidewater Algonquin, Timucua, Tunica, Tuscarora, Yamasee, Yuchi.


Arapaho, Arikara, Assiniboine, Assiniboine (Souix), Bidai, Blackfoot, Caddo, Cheyenne, Comanche, Cree, Crow, Dakota (Sioux), Fox, Gros Ventre, Hidatsa, Iowa, Ioway, Kansa, Kaw, Kiowa, Kiowa-Apache, Kickapoo, Kitsai, Lakota (Sioux), Mandan, Mendota, Metis, Missouri, Nakota (Sioux), Omaha, Osage, Oti, Otoe, Pawnee, Peoria, Ponca, Sauk, Sarsi, Shawnee, Siouan, Sioux, Sutai, Tonkawa, Waccamaw, Wahpeton, Wea, Wichita, Wowapi.

Great Basin

Bannock, Crow, Omaha, Paiute (Northern), Paiute (Southern), Sheepeater, Shoshone (Northern), Shoshone (Western), Ute, Washo.


Carrier, Cayuse, Coeur D'Alene, Colville, Dock-Spus, Eneeshur, Flathead, Kalispel, Kawachkin, Kittitas, Klamath, Klickitat, Kosith, Kutenai, Lakes, Lillooet, Methow, Modac, Neemeepoo, Nez Perce, Okanogan, Palouse, Sanpoil, Shushwap, Sinkiuse, Spokane, Tenino, Thompson, Tyigh, Umatilla, Wallawalla, Warm Springs, Wasco, Wauyukma, Wenatchee, Wishram, Wyampum, Yakima.


Acoma, Apache (Eastern), Apache (Western), Chemehuevi, Coahuiltec, Cochiti, Comanche, Dineh, Hohokam, Hopi, Isleta, Jano, Jemez, Jicarilla, Kiowa, Laguna, Manso, Maricopa, Mohave, Nambe, Navaho, Pai, Papago, Picuris, Pima, Pojoaque, Pueblo, Sandia, San Felipe, San Ildefonso, San Juan, Santa Ana, Santa Clara, Santo Domingo, Taos, Tesuque, Tohono O'Odham, Yaqui, Yavapai, Yuman, Zia, Zuni.


Calapuya, Cathlamet, Chehalis, Chemakum, Chetco, Chilluckkittequaw, Chinook, Clackamas, Clatskani, Clatsop, Cowich, Cowlitz, Elwha, Haida, Hoh, Kalamath, Klallam, Kootenai, Kwakiutl, Kwalhioqua, Lushootseed, Makah, Molala, Multomah, Neemeepoo, Nez Perce, Onondaga, Oynut, Ozette, Pomo, Queets, Quileute, Quinault, Rogue River, Salish, Siletz, Steilacoom, Suquamish, Swinomish, Taidhapam, Tillamook, Tolowa, Tsilhaot'in, Tutuni, Washoe, Yakama, Yakonan.


Achomawi, Atsugewi, Cabazon, Cahuilla, Chimariko, Choinummi, Chumash, Costanoan, Esselen, Hupa, Juaneno, Karuk, Kawaiisu, Maidu, Mission Indians, Miwok, Mono, Paiute, Patwin, Pomo, Serrano, Shasta, Tachi Yokut, Tolowa, Tubatulabal, Wailaki, Wintu, Wiyot, Yaha, Yokuts, Yuki, Yuman (California).

and the Nations and Tribes listed by state :-


Choctaw, Creek, Mobile.


Apache, Chiricahua, Cocopah, Coyotero, Havasupai, Hopi, Maricopa, Mojava, Opata, Pima, Pinal Arivaipi, Thono O'odham, Walapai, Yaqui, Yayapai, Yumi, Zuni.


Caddo, Chakchilma, Quapaw.


Cahhulla, Chemehueyi, Chumash, Costana, Diegueno, Esselen, Gabriallino, Luiseno, Maidu, Miwok, Modoc, Mojawa, Mono, Panamint, Patwin, Salinan, Serrano, Shasta, Wintun Pomo, Wiyot Yuki, Yokuts, Yurok.


Arapaho, Cheyenne, Comanche, Kiowa, Navajo, Ute.


Narraganset, Whappinger.


Apola, Creek, Cusabo, Edisto, Guale, Sawokli, Yamasi, Yuchi.


Bannock, Blood, Coer D'alene, Lemni, Nez Perce, Pend D'orielle, Shoshone, Wind River Shoshone.


Chahokia, Illinois, Kaskaskla, Moingwena, Peoria, Tamaroa.


Delaware, Huron, Miami, Kickapoo, Mingo, Munsee, Ottawa, Piankasha, Piankenshaw, Pottawattomi, Shawnee, Shockey, Stockbridge, Wea, Wyandot.


Omaha, Moingwena, Potowatomi.


Cheyenne, Kansa, Kiowa, Osaga.




Bikloxi, Chawasa, Chitmacha, Natchez, Tunica, Washa.


Malecite, Micmac, Passamquoddy, Pennacook, Penobscot.


Conoy, Nanticoke.


Massechuset, Narraganset.


Cree , Ottawa, Menomini.


Iowa Saukefox, Ojibwa, Santee Dakota, Wahpeton.


Biloxi, Chakcchilma, Choctaw, Mobile, Natchez, Taposa, Tunica.


Missouri, Osaga


Atsina, Blackfoot, Blood, Crow, Flathead, Kootenay, Pend D'orille, Piegan.


Cheyenne, Omaha, Oto, Pawnee, Ponca.


Gosiute, Modoc, Mono, Northern Paiute, Panamint, Southern Paiute, Western Shoshone.

New Hampshire

Mahican, Nauset , Nipuc, Pennacook.

New Mexico

Apache, Arivaipi, Comanche, Coyotero, Faroan, Gileno, Jicarilla Apache, Mescalero, Mimbreno, Opata, Pinal, Pueblo, Zuni.

New York

Abnakt, Cayuga, Delaware, Iroquois, Mohawk, Naticoke, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, Stockbridge, Unalachtigo, Whappinger.

North Carolina

Cherokee, Pamlico, Saponi, Secotan, Tuscarora, Tutelo.

North Dakota

Arkikara, Assiniboin, Blackfoot, Hidatsa, Mandan.


Eire, Huron.


Caddo, Wichita.


Chinok, Kalapuya, Karok, Klamath, Kusa , Siletz, Siuslaw, Till-amok, Tutunti, Umatilla, Wailaptu, Walpapi, Yakjim Tenino, Yaquina Alsea.


Delaware, Montalik, Munsji, Nanticoke, Susquehanna, Unalachtigo, Wappinger.


Wappinger, Montalik, Delaware, Unalachtigo.

South Carolina

Cape Fear, Catawba, Coree, Cusabo, Edisto, Sewee, Stono, Yuchi.

South Dakota

Brule, Hunkpapa, Oglala, Sana Arc, Sioux, Teton Dakota, Yanktonai Pakota.


Cherokee, Chickasaw, Shawnee.


Alabama Coushatta, Apache, Atakapa, Caddos, Chickasaw, Cherokee, Choctaw, Coahuiltec, Comanche, Karankawa, Kichai, Kickapoo, Li-anero, Lipan Apache, Mescalero Apache, Shawnee, Tawakoni, Tonkawa, Waco.


Gosiute, Navajo, Shoshone, Ute.


Mahican, Nauset, Nipuc.


Conoy, Monacan, Nottoway, Powhatan, Weapemeoc.


Chehaus, Chinok, Coeur D'alene, Cowutz, Kuaspel, Makah, Methow, Nuth Chal Nuth, Palus, Quinalt, Squamish, Walla Walla.

West Virginia

Conoy, Monocan, Uninh.


Kickapoo, Menomini, Potawatomi, Saukefox, Winnebago.


Cheyenne, Crow, Teton Dakota, Wind River Shoshone.

These lists were compiled with material from several sources and are by no means definitive. The Delaware, for example, had their original homeland in New York state, but by 1900 had moved, or had been forced to move, nearly halfway across the North American continent.


The Ice Age in Indiana

Ice Age Indiana Resource at Center for Earth and Environmental Science

Ice Ages at Illinois State Museum

Ice Ages and Glaciation at Hartwick College

Indiana Geological Survey

Clovis People

Clovis and Beyond

Clovis Complex at NativePeoples of North America: History and Culture

Clovis / Pre-Clovis Problem at Paleoindian & Other Archaeological Stuff

Clovis Points - Exhibit at Online Smithsonian Institution

Midwestern US 16,000 years ago at Illinois State Museum

Monte Verde Excavation

Retrace the trek of first Americans

Paleo Indians, Archaic, Woodland and Mississippian Periods

Introduction to the Prehistory of Indiana at the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology

Paleo, Archaic, Woodland and Mississippian Periods at Hutchison Research Center

The mounds and the mound builders

Angel Mounds, Indiana

Cahokia Mounds, Illinois

Dickson Mounds, Illinois


Indian Mounds of the US at Native American Culture

Moundbuilder links

Who were the mound builders? at Hutchison Research Center

American Indian sites

About Specific Tribal or Nation Resources

American Indian Histories at Manataka

American Issues Index at First Nations

Culture - Native American

First Nations Histories

Indiana Indians

Indians of northern Indiana

Indian Tribe Names at Running Deer's Longhouse

Map of American Indian Tribes at Running Deer's Longhouse

Miami Documents at the Glenn A. Black Laboratory of Archaeology

Native American Culture at Great Dreams

Native Languages of the Americas

Photographs 1890 to 1930 at The Curtis Collection

Treaties between the US and Native Americans at The Avalon Project at Yale Law School

Tribal Names at On This Date by Phil Konstantin

Tribes at Native American Indian History

General American History Sites

An Outline of Early American history at Hypertext on American History

US Historical Documents at University of Oklahoma, College of Law

Terre Haute | Prehistory | Indians | Explorers | Postcards (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4), (Page 5), (Page 6) | Union Hospital | Ghosts | 2002 Events (Cars), (Planes), (Hovercraft) | Snow Rollers (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4), (Page 5) | Differences (Page 1), (Page 2), (Page 3), (Page 4) | Other Stuff | Fowlers | Other Sites

HomePage | Optical Illusions | War Stories | QBasic | Dads Navy Days | Bristol | Bristol, USA | Bristol, Canada | Terre Haute | Miscellany | Web Stuff | About Ray | Site Map | Site Search | Messages | Credits | Links | Web Rings

This page last modified 9th March 2005

GoStats stats counter